DVC on Mode Ctrl+Alt+Del

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The State-run power and irrigation facility Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC), jointly owned by the Government of India, and the state governments of West Bengal and Jharkhand, is on mode ‘Ctrl+Alt+Del’. The company bigwigs are bringing in their efforts to reboot, restructure, and revamp the organisation and are joining hands to execute some ambitious plans that they hold in their booty. Some of the issues that are being addressed afresh include HR policies, technological updates, upgrade of capacities, joint ventures (JV) for captive mining and CSR activities. DVC, one of the few remaining large organisations headquartered in Kolkata, is all set to leverage its unique advantage of being into generation, transmission, distribution and water management simultaneously. In a never-before interview, with Bhamoti Basu of EE, R N Sen, Chairman of DVC gives us a sneak peek into the plausible strategies of the organisation in the years to come. 

 

Here’s a Recap:

 
“When I joined DVC, two important issues were crucial which needed immediate attention. Firstly, there was a lot of resentment among the employees – the organisation was passing through a very difficult phase. Profits ran into negative – when I joined there was a Supreme Court stay for Rs. 3000 crores which is still hanging on our head. In spite of profit in the books, in reality we were running in loss. The employees were not at all a satisfied lot – a number of issues remained yet to be addressed.
 

Employee Grievances

Thus came in the reputed firm ‘Shri Ram Centre for industrial relations, human resources, economic and social development (SRC)’, New Delhi for conducting the ‘Organisational Climate Survey’. They were appointed keeping in mind that they, would, on our behalf, be able to look into the insights of the people. It is but natural that being the Chairman of the company it was not possible for me reach out to each and every individual personally, to understand their grievances and then to address them. The SRC has been the pioneer in this field. All the top notch industries have appointed them earlier not only during periods of crisis but also to redress the employees, their commitment levels, competence levels etc. and the organisation as a whole on a time-to-time basis so that the company does not lose sight of the employees. This is necessary as in as large organisations as DVC it is impossible to think about interactions among the top management and the employees as they are spread across wide areas, employees are too many in number, are segmented across numerous hierarchies, and in the process the individual employee and large sections of the employees do not get any attention from the management, not to mention the top managerial levels. ‘Organisational Climate Surveys’ and ‘Satisfaction Surveys’ are a few of the methods to address these issues. They cover more than 50 per cent of the population and include the family members of the employees as well. The questions of the survey are designed in such a way that that they yield a more structured feedback.
 
Secondly, another controversial issue that was disturbing the DVC was the introduction of the concept of UCP. Being implemented as late as in 2007, it remained from being introduced in a proper way. Hence, instead of generating employee satisfaction, it brought about a lot of resentment across the organisation. It was a difficult subject to address.
 
The results that SRC stressed were that there was a lack of communication among the employees of DVC. Moreover, they also pointed out lack of commitment, lack of competency etc. on part of the employees. The latter also had the notion that the HR Department was not doing anything for them. At this juncture, the concept of UCP although a whiff of fresh air in the field of promotion, was unable to do the needful. UCP is applied when the company is unable to promote its employees due to scarcity of vacancies. Therefore, under this regime, the employee is provided with the new scale, but he was not bestowed with the responsibilities or the designation. This was found to createa lot of confusion and DVC faced a lot of pressure from the unions and the employees in general. There were persistent disparities existing across two groups of employees. While a group of people was getting certain advantages, the other group was getting something else. This led to perpetual comparisons and a gap that was being created between the two groups. Resultant was a continuous process of coughing up advantages to certain groups of people who went on complaining about things. This was quite difficult for DVC – the general concern of the management was that ultimately it was allotting too many advantages to people who did not deserve them enough. According to the policies of the UCP, people who were not promoted earlier due to lack of competency or because they did not want to move out of their native place, got better promoted as compared to their seniors. These disparities were issues that needed to be addressed within DVC. I have been trying to address the same and have been successful to some extent. I am pretty hopeful that we shall fully be able to come out of this mess by the next couple of months.
 
The SRC study was an eye-opener in the sense that it made us realise that a lot of effort needs to be put in to create different systems, policies, processes, etc. and to make up for the huge gap that has been created between DVC and the rest of the industry. Earlier there was a period when the employees of DVC had the notion that they were the best. They had enough profit at hand. This profit was not performance-based, but was earned due to the sheer fact that DVC had control over the selling price. That the company decided the selling price helped it to raise profit amounting to Rs. 1000 crores in a year. This in turn camouflaged all other deficiencies or inefficiencies that the company might otherwise have. Somehow the employees had the notion that they did not need any improvement, they were doing very well. While the other players of the industry were struggling DVC need not struggle. This complacency was detrimental and ultimately created a huge gap vis-à-vis industry standards and what DVC really was. If you visit any area, till now you will find that this gap is quite high. Commercially we are in a difficult condition because while initially we had a “cost, commercial, profit” concept where DVC used to decide the selling price, now it is determined by the regulators based on a number of parameters, ifs and buts etc. and is calculated in a pretty complicated manner. While initially, we were unwilling to accept it, later on we realised that there was no way out but to accept it. Hence, commercially we have to practically start from negative, then negative to zero and finally to positive.
 
However, we have a better commercial understanding now. We have a better understanding also of how to operate the plants. What is appreciable about DVC is that people have picked up very fast. When we introduced ERP in DVC, the employees picked it up in 1 and a half years, while it is noteworthy that most of the other companies take as much as 4 to 5 years to introduce it. This in itself speaks of how fast the people have picked up things in DVC and how people have really transformed. Though the company cannot boast of quite structured reforms, but nevertheless, it is undergoing a process of reforms. 
 
In Phase I, we have tried to address the people first in terms of the ‘Climate Survey’ and then forming the HR policies – promotion policies, tenure, education policies, and training policies – we have come up with around 15 to 16 policies to keep our employees focussed. Similarly, we are conducting elections for the unions. We are making things more transparent, visible and people oriented. We have gone for extensive training programmes at all the levels – mainly technical and also at the managerial levels, non-executive and executive levels. It is mandatory that every individual would have to be exposed to these training processes for at least 5 to 7 days in a year. This criterion has not yet been fulfilled, but huge efforts have been put in for the same. We have activated 2 to 3 training programmes and on a more or less regular basis, at least 2 to 3 batches are getting trained. At least a group of 30 – 40 people are always on training. We have sent people to IIM Kolkata and to the Staff College in Hyderabad. The ultimate aim is to address the gap that has been created due to such a long absence from the industry and the environment. Similarly, we are conducting workshops and conferences in order to bridge the knowledge gap. We are bringing in experts – the best in the industry to train our personnel in HR, O&M, commercial and transmission systems etc. They are getting us conversant with the best practices in the industry such that the company is on a continuous process of development. 
 

Technological Advancements

We are getting technological advancements at par with the industry standards. After the ERP, we are about to introduce the GPS monitoring. We are also in the process of procuring 3D software and IT tools which is sure to make the team more strong and focussed. We are going for popular management systems – in other words we are trying to get the best of the industry that is available in the market today. As there are no disadvantages to work upon, it is easy to strengthen the advantages, starting from a clean slate. DVC, hence, we can say, is coming up very fast. We have been able to add capacity, this year we may just come out of negative and make some profit and from next year onwards we are looking for higher profits. So, in a nutshell, DVC as perceived in the power sector today is blooming to be a promising company, and it may so happen that in the next couple of years DVC climbs up the ladder, to position itself next to NTPC. In other areas, for example, in transmission, we have gone for extensive investment to strengthen the network backbone. Somehow it was neglected so far and therefore has witnessed extensive breakdowns and failures. So that is the area that we have stressed upon. 
 
We have improved our entire transmission system in such a way that today even during heavy storms the mechanism is not affected. We are working with the West Bengal Government to supply power from our side in the Asansol area where the entire transmission mechanism from the state government had once been uprooted. We are putting together some loop lines so that the Asansol area can get power supply from DVC.
 

Social Obligations

DVC ensures that its consumers always get power supply from two sources and that they are satisfied 24X7. We need to ensure that DVC becomes the best company in transmission and distribution also. If not the best in the international level, we must definitely try to be one of the best. Afforestation, soil conservation and water (we are trying to develop a new model), are certain areas where we have shared our concerns with the Chief Minister and she has appreciated our efforts too. We are going for 20 pilot projects wherein we plan to capture the rainwater first in a check dam and the overflow from the check dam is then going to be captured in a rainwater cistern. These projects are concentrated in both the upper valley as well as the lower. Till date, only 20 to 30 per cent of the rain water gets conserved, the rest of the water being drained away as flood water. The disadvantages of the situation are that firstly, this results in flood, and secondly, the entire water is wasted and serves no purpose – that too in a scenario when a large part of the valley area and the surrounding areas is already suffering from water crisis. Water shortage is so acute that industrialisation and agriculture are facing continuous hindrances. There must be a way out to address these issues. Thus, DVC has committed to construct 6 dams in the valley area, of which one has been constructed with the aid of the West Bengal and the Jharkhand Government and the rest four have been completed by DVC and the last one awaits construction at Balpahari. DVC has approached the Government for their approval on the initiation of the same. 
 

Check Dams

However, Delloite told us that even the Balpahari Dam or whatever we are doing for water retention would not suffice. We should aim at either preventing flood or providing enough water for the upcoming projects. Growth has been highly sluggish in this area. If we look at the power consumption of the Eastern Zone, it is not even 50 per cent of the power consumption of the Northern region. While the latter consume almost 50000MW, the East consumes barely 20000 to 30000 MW. You have two ways of looking at it – you can either say that the East is highly underdeveloped, or you can say that this region has greater scopes of growth. I look at it the second way! But what stimulates growth and development? Water, land, power are the things required. DVC ensures that power is provided at the cheapest rate to the industry. While the rest of the country is receiving power at 6 to 6.50 rupees per unit, DVC is offering it at 4 rupees. This is a huge attraction for the power consuming industries to come and set up plants here. To support these plants, water supply should rise considerably. We thought that it is a reasonable idea not to depend on the dams for water supply rather it needs to be captured in a different way. While we had earlier constructed around 60,000 water bodies earlier including check dams, most of them have been silted and are not in proper working conditions at the moment. 
 

Pisciculture

DVC has attempted to rebuild and renovate the dams them so that they can be used for pisciculture. We are seeking permission to let us fishing from the local valley areas. We are training people to catch fish and cultivate them. We are also auctioning for fishing rights. This would generate additional revenue for investment in other areas. To capture the total amount of water that is flowing out, we are constructing new check dams and water cisterns. During rainfall, the rainwater is spread across wide areas. They form small streams which join to make broader streams and so on. 
 
We are trying to capture the water at its source with the help of the new check dams. These check dams again have their own capacity depending upon the amount of land that is being invested, on the depth etc. Over the water surplus, beyond the catchment area, are being constructed water harvesting structures. There would be overflow from these structures as they have their own capacity. Beyond that, the overflow will come to the dams. There has to be some amount of water in the dam as a myriad of other activities is dependent on the water of the dam. In this way, through different kinds of water bodies constructed, we are able to hoard at least 70 per cent of the rain water. The water would be spread across different areas in check dams, as ground water and in water harvesting bodies. This will be helpful in practicing pisciculture and some agricultural activities and yet the ground water will not get exhausted. While in the next 1 to 2 years there might not be any improvement, in the years to come, you will find that there is enough water in the region to address both industrial as well as agricultural needs as also to meet the water demand of the people.  We have taken up 20 pilot projects, one of these have been successfully rolled out in a massive way. The government is urging us to take up as much of these projects as possible as this will change the entire game plan. 
 

Agriculture

DVC has large areas available in the dams which are used for the purpose of storing water for four months during the rainy seasons. Beyond that, the water level falls and the area gets exposed. Therefore on an experimental basis, we have gone for the cultivation of mint and lemongrass, which has been quite a hit. Now we are encouraging other interested parties to take up the cultivation of mint and lemongrass which can be done through self-help groups or ‘Mahila Samities’. These are high cash crops and the land which is wasted for around 7 to 8 months in a year can be properly utilised. Therefore we are experimenting with a lot of new concepts which will help us not only in earning extra revenue, but would help the local population by generating enough employment opportunities, revenue and cash so that the economy of the area grows.
 
The pisciculture that is being experimented with at Maithon is not showing quite encouraging results, as they are confined within a small area and the amount of money that is being spent in feeding those fish is quite substantially high. It was thought to be a breakthrough in technology, but the breakthrough is not happening as much, the money spent being substantially higher than the revenue that is to be generated in the end. We are training people to continue pisciculture in our water bodies. There are no immediate benefits from these schemes. The roll out will start happening after four or five years when they start multiplying in thousands. Then you will find that more and more people are getting employment and income and the supply of these commodities in times of scarcity, are increasing in a phenomenal manner. 
 
DVC is trying to create a joint venture with Tata Power to form an O&M company that will have a tie-up with the best technology software in the world. The land losers will be given some cardholding power according to their levels of skill – be it semiskilled, unskilled and so on. The entrepreneurs will create cooperative societies which will play a major role in providing jobs to the people, not only unskilled, but also the semi-skilled ones through this JV Company. They will also be given a chance to upgrade their skill set step-by-step. 
 
Therefore, apart from power, we have engaged in a number of activities in the social sector also. 
 

Fuel Independent

DVC has added substantial capacity to its power plants. It has more than doubled in the span of a year. When I had joined a year back the capacity was around 2700MW now it is more than 5000MW and maybe by the end of next year it would reach around 7000MW. So, the capacity is jumping. We are basically stuck up because of fuel shortage. 
Everybody wishes to be fuel sufficient these days. Although it is not our core competency, still we are pushed to look out for our own source of fuel. We are already in a JV in EMTA where we will be operating three mines. One is already under fully operation, another one is a controversial mine in Lohar where there is problem with local villagers. We are trying to resolve to the issues. Third is in Jharkhand, Tumka Range .That will take some more time. Even then, that would not be adequate as per our coal requirements. While we need 52 million tonnes of coal per year, these coal mines will hardly give me 10 million tonnes. Therefore we have applied for more mines in order to be fuel sufficient. Both the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Coal are planning to us more mines. We have to ensure that we get enough coal supply so that we can continue to offer the right amount of power at cheaper rates. If we get more fuel, we can add to our power capacity too. If we get a fuel assurance of around 40 million tonnes, then we can add capacity of around 4000 MW. Growth in power will be much faster but again fuel is the criterion. 
 

Bonds

DVC has issued a Rs. 2600 crores bond which has got a Government guarantee. Investors have had quite a positive feeling for the organisation and DVC has got a lot of support. The only setback is that the JSEB is not repaying the outstanding from power purchase bills which add up to around Rs. 5500 crores. It is not a matter of joke to liquidate such a huge amount. If they repay Rs. 1000 crores every year it will be succeed in liquidating the interest only, rather than the principal. We are trying to work out things with the Government how to deal with the total sum at one go and then we can start from a clean slate. 
 
We are focussing on four main areas in the villages – education, health, sanitation and water. We must ensure that basic amenities are available across all the villages. We are trying to build up the Narayanpur model in Raghunathpur in association with Ramakrishna Mission. 
 

Solar Power

In solar capacity we are going for 15MW right now. We aim to go for 1000MW step by step. We are talking to Solar missions to We are looking out for subsidies and for JVs. The tenure would be out in May-June regarding the solar capacity and by that time we will understand the amount of support that we are likely to get. We will then frame out how to generate the balance part of it. We will ask the major players in the solar arena too. Not only shall we be the second in thermal power after NTPC, but we thrive to be the leader in solar power by leaving the rest at the back. We have no shortage of ambitions. We are going for the complete restructuring of whole DVC. World Bank has shown keen interest on us. They have approached us and want to partner with us for the restructuring and get all the best practices from all over the world. DVC should be the world best company.
 

Spin-off Agenda

Can DVC emerge as the next ‘Navaratna’ of India? Well, DVC is not a multinational corporation. Our subsidies may come up as ‘navaratna’. If additional capacities are generated, 7000 MW will certainly be something to talk about. Our plan is to touch 20,000 MW if we get assurance of fuel. More coal would mean more capacity addition. DVC will continue to be DVC, but generation, transmission, distribution will be separate wings altogether and so would be coal mining. At present they are separate business units who have separate balance sheets and have nominated separate chairman and CEO also. Legally, till now we are one, but financially we are very much separate. In future, when the right time comes, we may spin them out as separate legal entities. DVC will continue to be the holding company, because DVC will be left over with the expenditure part of all the social issues like flood control, afforestation, soil conservation, etc. Then we have large number of schools and hospitals and other social activities. So there we need investment. The flagship companies will fund DVC for all those experiments. 
 
We are making a very systematic structure and are going for massive restructuring. Anybody can work from any part of the world. Everything is getting into place one by one. May be in another 3 to 4 years’ time, DVC will have a new look. Now, while we are being cursed, in no time they will turn into praises. Nobody would have thought about punching systems in DVC. Without peoples’ support management would not be able to implement changes. Whatever decision management takes, it is the people who make it! The amount of change in DVC in 1 and half years if you jot down, other companies have not been able to implement in 5 years also. We are hopeful that we will achieve what is our final target. World Bank has approached DVC from their part because they have faith on us and that we really come up so that they can also share their success story – a 65 year old company that was going in the ruins comes up again to be the best! The World Bank is saying till today that NTPC is different because they have created it. They want to say the same thing about us. DVC is much bigger than NTPC in terms of activities. While NTPC is into generation only, while we have generation, transmission, distribution – the power sector itself is larger than NTPC. Other than power, we have a myriad of activities. Our problem was lack of proper organisation. Naturally therefore, the growth was not also achieved properly. The ultimate target of the employees was to get promotions. We have changed promotion schemes of the company as well. Now promotion is based on both performance levels as well as seniority. We have lost 20 to 25 precious years by shutting ourselves off from the rest of the country.”
 

DVC Finance (T T K Gupta, Director – Finance, DVC)

Against bond issue of Rs. 2600 crores, the amount offered was Rs. 5700 crores. The offers were then examined on merit basis. The lowest pay quoted was 57 basis points in 15 years GSEC. The bond was guaranteed by the Government of India and was under structured obligation and has been rated at ‘AAA’ by both Fitch and Gates. Just like the last financial year, the amount generated through bonds will go to finance all 11th Plan projects, most of which (except one) have already been commissioned. Only Kodarma 2 (Units I & II) is remains and is expected to be commissioned very shortly. 
Therefore, project risks are over. What the investors really considered while investing in DVC bonds is that their money is going into risk-free funds or risk-free projects, i.e. into already commissioned projects. In other words, the project construction risk is over. Secondly, there has never been a single instance of default from DVC’s part on repayment of any long term loan, bond money or even interests in the past 65 to 66 years of its existence. It is the second biggest strength that DVC can boast of. During all phases of ups and downs DVC has continued serving its lenders, financial institutions and banks smoothly.
 
The only important factor that was responsible in a big way to contribute to the troubles that DVC was going through some time back was continued default in payment by the Jharkhand State Electricity Board (JSEB). The most updated figures of their default stand at around Rs. 79 – 80 crores per month, that would sum up to an annual approximated rate of almost Rs. 1000 crores. This default has acutely troubled cash inflows to DVC. Quite recently they have opened additional LC of more than Rs. 78 crores, which is good news for the market especially. Therefore they have been able to start repaying DVC and for the first time, the latter has received a payment of the power purchase bills from JSEB. Moreover, the due amount that has accumulated over decades has also started melting through intervention of the Ministry of Power, GOI. 
 
DVC has already received ad hoc Rs. 200 crores sometime in February this year from JSEB and is expecting another Rs. 1000 crores approximately as per decision taken at the GOI level, might be by the month of April itself. JSEB is submitting a roadmap of liquidation of the balance amount of Rs. 2,600 crores. The cash flow trouble in DVC is therefore subsiding gradually. Secondly, if one looks at the performance level of DVC, it will be found that most of the thermal power stations of DVC are vintage units which have never undergone any kind of comprehensive renovation or modernisation like many other existent vintage units in the power sector of the country. Somehow, the DVC engineers with their experience and skills have managed to operate a few of these thermal units at as much as 70% PLF if not more. However, the Bokaro thermal plant is going through up gradation exercises and other units are being shortlisted which can be taken through similar exercises. DVC is considering whether the low capacity units (not the 600 MW or 800 MW units that are in vogue today) should be selected for up gradation exercises as well. Some of them may be phased out as well. DVC is exploring possibilities of setting up new units in their place – whether it would make more sense and whether it would be more economical for the country in general, and DVC in particular. With the existing vintage units, one cannot expect performances similar to that of new units. 
 
The total capital expenditure during 10th and 11th plan and 2 projects of 12th plan (Bokaro A and Raghunathpur Phase II is estimated to be around Rs. 46 thousand crores. This amount has to be funded. The normative ratio of funding through debt and equity in the power sector as approved by the regulators is approximately 70:30. Therefore, 70% is to be funded through borrowing, and the remaining 30% through equity. The 70% is being mobilised through banks and other financial institutions and also through bonds. Rs. 4,400 crores last year was part of the debt. The bond money on the other hand also includes some equity component because too many projects are being handled within a very short time by DVC, which is considered to be exceptional. In a very short time, they have added capacity of more than 3,500 MW. 
 
It is difficult to generate so much of cash IR from old vintage units, unless they are renovated and are brought at par with the new units in terms of performance. During this time lag, the GOI has directed DVC to raise funds through equities as well which would be provided with GOI guarantee. DVC has, for the 10th and 11th plan projects, contributed from its own cash resources as equity as much as RS. 7,000 crores out of the Rs. 46 thousand crores and some more equity is being expected from the financial year 2013-’14. DVC is confident about that because most of the projects have been commissioned and the full revenue stream will come from 2013-’14. Therefore DVC will be able to generate internal resources and simultaneously, will be able to contribute to the balance equity that is required for the 12th plan.
 
DVC was formed in 7th July, 1948 by the Parliament Act. At that time it was the single multipurpose river valley project across India and as per the mandate crucial was the socio-economic development of the entire region. If one examines the terrain of the river valley, especially the upper valley, he will find that it is subject to extensive soil erosion. This results in extensive formation of gulley in the plateau. When the dam was constructed the departments under the DVC, in the early part of 1950s and 1960s, it was found that the lifespan of the dam was being shortened the due to soil erosion. Keeping this in mind, in the 1949, DVC started the soil conservation project in the river valley area. During the time of inception of DVC, soil conservation technology in India was in an almost nascent stage. It has, since then, come a long way and DVC has been the pioneer in this field. 
 
Being content with the activities of soil conservation in the valley area, the Government of India (GOI), especially the Ministry of Agriculture, requested DVC to train various persons from all over India. They also started a soil conservation institute for this purpose. This is still being carried on by the Ministry of Agriculture and various personnel are being trained by DVC for soil conservation technology. The personnel have been selected not by DVC, but by the Ministry. 50% of the funding came from the Ministry through grants and loans. Now, DVC has started SIP advancements, i.e. by spending out own funds and their activities have not been restricted to soil conservation only. Noteworthy is the fact that they have forayed into sectors like education (adult education, night education), medicine, have introduced mobile van units. Moreover, this year a project has been initiated under which at least one village in each project would be turned into 100% sanitised units. This year the target has already been achieved. DVC has not restricted its activities solely in parts West Bengal. It has worked all across the command area, that is in both West Bengal (parts of Panchet, Durgapur etc.), and Jharkhand (Chandrapura, Bokaro, Kodarma, Mython and part of Panchet) as well. 
 
At present DVC is working across not less than 600 villages in the states of both West Bengal and Jharkhand. It concentrates in villages that are situated within 10 km of radius from its plants. DVC has also attempted Narayanpur model in its DSTPS in association with Ramakrishna Mission. The issue is in its initial stages of discussion with the General Secretary of the Mission. 
 
DVC also operates its own schools in Chandrapura, Bokaro, Durgapur to name a few – at both primary and secondary levels. Moreover, it funds schools which are situated in the Damodar Valley area. The budget that is spent on educational activities sums up to an approximate Rs. 25 crores per annum. I have had the experience of working as Manager, Soil Conservation in Hajaribagh, which is a hugely Maoist infested area. For the last four and a half years DVC has done many an activity in this region. However during his tenure he has been lucky enough to not have received a single letter of threat from the Maoists be it at the lowest rung of the department because the people of the region know that whatever work DVC takes up is for their benefit rather than that of the employees of the organisation. DVC has also initiated pisciculture activities in both Mython and Panchet reservoirs and has started mint and lemongrass cultivations as well. 20 ponds have been renovated to initiate pisciculture. While it is a one-time activity on part of DVC, it will be carried on further by various self-help groups. 
 

DVC SIP (Pallav Ray, Additional Secretary, DVC)

DVC believes in the quality of work rather than quantity. Hence, whatever the challenges may be, the company has enough potential to face them. While 2% of profit of DVC has been restricted to SIP activities, but budget spent on the work executed by the soil conservation department has not been included in the profit. That is, this amount has not been spent from profit. The main objective of DVC has always been socio-economic development of the valley area and it has tried to maintain it along the years. Purulia, Bankura and part of Bardhaman are parts of West Bengal where DVC has worked – everybody is pleased. Quite recently, the present chief minister of West Bengal had called DVC and requested them to do some work in the lower valley area too. Discussions are on-going and plans are in a very nascent state. Although DVC has limited funds, if the GOI helps them with enough funds they have the capability of providing assistance to the people. The added benefit that the activities of DVC bring along is that they are executed by local villagers and not by contractors. In upper valley, DVC has worked in areas like Ranchi, Hajaribagh, Kodarma, Bokaro, Giridih etc.
 
With inputs by: Saurav Bhattacharya
Pix by: Debasish Nag